ISSN  2587-2362  |  E-ISSN  2618-642X

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Int J Med Biochem : 1 (3)

Volume: 1  Issue: 3 - 2018

RESEARCH ARTICLE
1.Evaluation of analytical performance specifications of routine clinical biochemistry tests with biological variation-based total allowable error criteria
Orhan Cakmak, Zeynep Altun, Nilhan Nurlu Ayan
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.39974  Pages 91 - 98
INTRODUCTION: Total allowable error (TEa) is the analytical quality specification that determines the acceptable limits for a test result. The aim of the present study was to determine whether third-party control data (percentage coefficient of variation (CV), percentage bias, and %TEa) of 26 clinical biochemistry parameters collected over a period of 6 months would meet biological variation (BV)-based analytical quality specifications (minimum, desirable, and optimum) in which BV quality specification might be more appropriate for our laboratory use.
METHODS: The study was conducted for 6 months on tests with the TEa values determined according to BV and using third-party controls, Unity Real Time® software, and Beckman Coulter AU5800 clinical chemistry analyzer.
RESULTS: The BV minimum specification is the easiest target to be performed by laboratories since it has the widest limits. It is also known that the BV already fulfills the other specifications (minimum and desirable) in tests where the optimum specification targets can be achieved, and the test performance classifications of our work are made according to this information. The minimum specification is only in Level 2 control serum total cholesterol test. The optimum specification with the narrowest limits within the BV criteria and the most difficult to achieve was met in nine tests (alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, ferritin, lipase, triglyceride, and uric acid (UA) for both control levels. Outside of these tests, in general, the desirable specification that each laboratory is aiming to fulfill is met.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It is very valuable to set the boundaries of quality specifications targeted for analytical performance based on BV. These values are determined by the intra-individual and inter-individual variability of the test and, thus, define a test-specific target. In addition to defining the TEa for each specification of BV, the definition of bias and CV boundaries can give a more objective idea of the source of error.

2.Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha G-308 a polymorphism with inflammatory markers and lipid profile in coronary heart disease
Sangita Mahadev Patil, Mangesh P Bankar, Ramchandra K Padalkar
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.02486  Pages 99 - 105
INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a primary proinflammatory cytokine. Single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the promoter region of cytokines have been implicated in the cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Thus, this study aims to understand the role of permissive promoter variants in TNF-α G-308 A and its correlation with inflammatory markers and lipid profile in the coronary heart disease.
METHODS: We determined the genotyping of TNF-α G-308 A polymorphism by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay in 109 cases with coronary heart disease and 120 controls. Allele and genotype frequencies were estimated. The strength of the association of TNF-α -308 G >A and risk of coronary heart diseases was measured by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: In coronary heart disease and controls, the frequencies of minor allele TNF-α -308 “A” were 0.190 and 0.158, respectively, while the frequencies of major allele TNF-α “G” were 0.809 and 0.841, respectively. The genotype frequencies of TNF-α -308 G-A in coronary heart disease cases were GG=68.81%, GA=26.61%, AA=4.58%; and the frequencies in controls were GG=76.67%, GA=20.83%, AA=2.50%. The OR for wild related to the TNF-α polymorphism was 0.6714 (0.3737–1.206; p=0.233). The OR for heterozygous was 1.387 (0.7468–2.541 p=0.350), and the OR for homozygous was 1.857 (0.4372–8.041 p=0.482). The differences in AA genotype frequencies of TNF-α -308 G-A between cases and controls have led to an OR 1.857; 0.4372–8.041; p=0.4829 in the univariate analysis that was not significant.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: No association was observed between the permissive promoter variants in the TNF-α gene and an increased risk of coronary heart disease.

3.Comparison of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, platelet-to-lymphocyte, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder
Zekiye Catak, Emel Uzmez, Nefise Ozturk, Kader Ugur
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.17363  Pages 106 - 110
INTRODUCTION: It is thought that the immune system may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of many psychiatric and neurological diseases. In recent years, it was suggested that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, platelet-to-lymphocite, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), respectively) analysis is used to predict peripheral inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to compare the changes in NLR, PLR, MLR values in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression.
METHODS: In this retrospective study, a total of 1543 inpatients/outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression admitted to a mental health hospital between 2016 and 2017 were evaluated. Eighty control subjects were included from the hospital. All groups (schizophrenia, bipolar, depression, controls) were compared with one another in terms of NLR, PLR, and MLR values using SPSS 21.
RESULTS: There was significant difference in NLR between the schizophrenia group and healthy controls (p=0.007). When the patient groups (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression groups) were compared with each other, NLR values were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to depression groups (p<0.001). MLR values for the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups were significantly higher than for the depression group (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). PLR values were found to be significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in patients with bipolar disorder (p=0.007).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The changes in NLR, PLR, and MLR values used as indicators of inflammation have shown that psychiatric disorders are associated with inflammatory processes. However, it was observed that this relationship was more obvious in schizophrenia compared to bipolar disorder and depression.

4.Reduced ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in female patients diagnosed with telogen effluvium
Ebru Yorulmaz Ertug, Ruken Alp Yilmaz
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.75047  Pages 111 - 114
INTRODUCTION: Telogen effluvium (TE) is the most common cause of diffuse hair shedding. It is a non-inflammatory process characterized by the widespread loss of hair follicles in the telogen phase. Identification of its etiology requires laboratory tests involving endocrine, nutritional, and autoimmune disorders, and detailed anamnesis. The aim of this study was to examine serum ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in female patients with TE, and to investigate their possible role in the disease pathogenesis.
METHODS: The study included 651 female patients: 455 in the TE group and 196 in the control group. Serum ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured in both the groups.
RESULTS: Patients with TE had significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations compared to those in the control group (17.35±18.54 ng/ml vs. 39.27±29.44 ng/ml) (p=0.001). The folate levels were significantly lower in the TE group compared to those in the control group (7.94±8.98 ng/ml vs. 11.31±4.7 ng/ml) (p=0.001). Vitamin B12 concentrations were also significantly lower in the TE group (232.13±123.35 pg/ml) (p=0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It was concluded that reduced levels of ferritin, vitamin B12, and folate might play a role in development of TE.

REVIEW
5.Gut microbiota and metabolism
Nevin Ýlhan
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.92400  Pages 115 - 128
The intestine of a healthy human harbors over 100 trillion cells that have a symbiotic relationship with the host, and they play a part in important metabolic, systemic, and immunologic functions. The human gut microbiota begins to take shape in the fetal life, and it achieves adult-like properties by the age of 2–3 years after being influenced by the type of delivery, feeding with either breast milk or formula, antibiotic use, as well as many environmental factors leading to dysbiosis. The important role that the gut microbiota plays in human metabolism and health, as well as identification of specific microorganisms that play role in various metabolic processes have encouraged researchers to investigate metabolism of dietary components and some metabolites produced by the host in particular. Important metabolic functions of the gut microbiota include fermentation of complex carbohydrates that escape digestion; various polyphenols consumed in the diet; fats, amino acids, and proteins; deconjugation of bile acids; and synthesis of vitamin K and several components of vitamin B. This review aims to discuss the relationship between gut microbiota and metabolism of biochemically important macromolecules, flavonoids, and gases. In addition, a summary of the up-to-date information on this subject is presented with the aim of emphasizing the importance of microbiota.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
6.The linearity problem of protein measurement and hook effect in albumin measurement from body fluids
Hamit Yasar Ellidag
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.36855  Pages 129 - 130
Abstract | Full Text PDF

7.Comments on the article “Unexpected laboratory results in cold agglutinin disease”
Antonio La Gioia
doi: 10.14744/ijmb.2018.47955  Pages 131 - 132
Abstract | Full Text PDF

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