INTRODUCTION: ABO blood group antigens could play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study characterised the metabolic health status (MHS) and CVD risk of apparently healthy subjects across ABO blood group system.
METHODS: Demographics, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected in a cross-sectional survey from 120 participants (18-70years) of difference ABO. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight divided by height squared (Kg/m2). About 5ml of fasting blood sample was collected after over-night fast. Fasting blood glucose was estimated using glucometer. The blood group was determined using Monoclonal ABO blood grouping reagent by CLAS Technology, UK. Direct enzymatic methods were used to measure total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein(HDL) using a commercial kit from Randox Laboratories, UK. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were estimated by Friedewald equation. Metabolically healthy (MH) and metabolically unhealthy (MUH) were identified based on absent or present of metabolic syndrome respectively, using the Joint Interim Statement criteria. CVD risk was determined using Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) chart.
RESULTS: Females showed significant differences in TC across the ABO system; O (4.85 + 0.77 mmol/L) showed significantly increased TC compared to A (4.22+ 0.72 mmol/L), (p = 0.015). LDL also increased significantly (p=0.042) in O (3.06 + 0.75 mmol/L) compared to A (2.53 + 0.62 mmol/L) in female. MUH showed no significant difference from MH in each ABO blood phenotype (p > 0.05) in both sexes. CVD risk among O phenotype (51.7%) was significantly higher (x^2 = 6.213; p = 0.045) than non-O blood groups in male subjects.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Metabolic health status was not linked with ABO system, but the possibilities that blood group O were more susceptible to CVD compared to non-O phenotypes among male subjects exist.