INTRODUCTION: There is a community habit that conventional cigarette or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are used after meals. Also, they tend to consume a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of this behavior on health remain unclear. Our study focuses on oxidative stress and inflammation in HFD-fed rats model exposed to conventional cigarettes and ENDS.
METHODS: Twenty-four male rats were equitably separated into the following four different groups: (1) NDC: normal diet and fresh air control, (2) HFDC: HFD and fresh air control, (3) HC: HFD+conventional cigarette, and (4) HE: HFD+ENDS. Conventional cigarettes and ENDS were exposed to the same nicotine dose of 12 mg/mL/group. Oxidative stress markers comprising malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH), as well as inflammation markers comprising interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and high sensitivity C-reactive pro-tein were assayed after 6 weeks of treatment. Statistical analysis of one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was performed.
RESULTS: HFD independently increased MDA and IL-6; simultaneously, it decreased SOD, CAT, and GSH. Both conventional cigarettes and ENDS exposure significantly increased entire inflammation markers and MDA, simultaneously decreasing SOD, CAT, and GSH compared to the normal and HFD control rats. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between conventional cigarettes and ENDS-exposed groups.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study revealed that ENDS is less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Nevertheless, both exposures significantly exacerbated oxidative stress and inflammation in HFD-fed rats, potentially leading to related diseases.